【雅思阅读素材】全球最安全地区排行榜 - 启程雅思

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Climate change experts have released maps of the world revealing how prepared different countries are to cope with the effects of climate change.

最近 ,气候变化专家发布了一张气候地图  ,该图显示了全球不同国家对气候变化的应对情况  。

In the maps, 192 countries are ranked by their ‘vulnerability’ and ‘readiness’, to produce an overall judgement on their fate.

从“脆弱”性和“准备”性这两个角度  ,这张地图评价了全球192个国家对气候变化的应对情况  。

The results reveal that Scandinavian countries and the UK are among the most likely to survive - butareas of sub-Saharan Africa will be hardest hit.

结果显示斯堪的纳维亚和英国受气候变化影响最小  ,而撒哈拉以南非洲将面临最大威胁 。

The maps were created by London-based company The Eco Experts, using data from the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, known as the ND-GainIndex.

这张地图由伦敦The Eco Experts公司制作  ,数据来自印第安纳州的诺特丹大学  ,被称作ND-Gain Index.

They took into account location,terrain, pollution rates and national resources when calculating which countries would be most affected.

他们将位置、地形、污染程度和国家资源都纳入评判标准  ,以此来计算哪些国家最易被气候变化所影响 。

Countries like Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark score well on the scale.

挪威、瑞典、芬兰和丹麦等国家的得分很高  。

But places like Central America,Africa and India all appear at risk from natural disaster - and are poorly equipped to cope, said The Eco Experts.

而中美洲、非洲和印度则极易遭受自然灾害  ,而且它们的应对措施也十分不完备  。

COUNTRIES THAT WILL BE MOST AND LEAST AFFECTED BY CLIMATE CHANGE
Least affected影响最小Score得分Most affected影响最大Score得分
1 - Norway   挪威 82.7 1 – Chad   乍得 31.6
2 - New Zealand   新西兰 82.2 2 –Eritrea   厄立特里亚国 33.8
3 - Sweden   瑞典 81.6 2 - Burundi   布隆迪 33.8
4 – Finland   芬兰 81.5 4 - Democratic Republic of Congo   刚果民主共和国 34.0
5 – Denmark   丹麦 81.4 4 - Central Africa Republic   中非共和国 34.0
6 – Australia   澳大利亚 80.1 6 – Sudan   苏丹 35.5
7 - United Kingdom   英国 80.0 7 – Niger   尼日尔 35.6
8 - United States   美国 78.9 7 – Haiti   海地 35.6
9 – Germany   德国 78.8 7 –Afghanistan   阿富汗 35.6
9 – Iceland   冰岛 78.8 10 - Guinea-Bissau   几内亚比绍 37.3

Jon Whiting, of The Eco Expertswarned: ‘Hurricanes, earthquakes, blizzards, droughts and flooding are all real dangers for some of these areas, and this is compounded by a lack of national strategy to counteract the effects.’

The Eco Experts专家Jon Whiting警告说:“飓风、地震、暴风雪、干旱和洪水会严重威胁这些地区 ,而国家应对措施的缺失更会加剧这一风险  。

Burundi, Chad, Sudan and the Democratic Republic of Congo produced some of the lowest scores, meaning these countries will be the biggest victims of weather disasters.

布隆迪、乍得、苏丹和刚果民主共和国得分最低 ,它们即将成为气候变化的最大受害者  。

The map is based on data compiled by the ND-Gain index, which has been monitoring 45 internal and external indicators of climate change exposure of 192 countries since 1992.

这张图的数据来自于 ND-Gain index 。自1992年以来  ,ND-Gain index就通过观察45个内部和外部指标  ,来评判全球192个国家的气候变化情况 。

The index is built on two variables; ‘vulnerability’ and ‘readiness’ for which a country gets a separate mark for each. These scores tally up to produce an overall total indicating howa particular nation would fare.

这项指标有两个指数:“脆弱”指数和“准备”指数  。每个国家在这两项上都有一个得分  ,指数之和则显示这个国家未来的命运 。

On the scale, the country best equipped to cope with the effects of climate change was Norway. In fact, Norway has topped the ranking every year since the Index began in 1995.

在这张表中  ,挪威的应对措施最为完备  。事实上  ,自1995年以来  ,挪威就一直雄踞榜首  。

Most countries across Europe will be not be severely affected by climate change, according to the map. It takes into accounts many factors such as access to clean drinking water and the risk of heat waves.

地图显示  ,大多数欧洲国家都不会过多地被气候变化所影响  。地图考虑到众多因素 ,如干净的水源和遭受热浪的风险  。


But places in sub-Saharan Africa (shown upper) will be most affected by a warming climate, while some countries in America like Bolivia (below) will also also be severely affected by global warming.

然而气候变暖对撒哈拉以南非洲国家影响最大  ,此外  ,每周的一些国家  ,例如玻利维亚  ,也会大受影响  。

North America will also apparently be able to cope with the effects of climate change, thanks to high readiness scores for the USA and Canada.

显然 ,得益于美国和加拿大 ,北美洲的得分也很高  。

Asia has a wide range of scores for different countries, owing to the vastly different climates and levels of infrastructure in various countries. Surprisingly, Australia comes out fairly well in the map, despite being a notoriously hot country.

由于气候和基础设施的差异  ,亚洲各个国家的指数相差较大  。尽管天气炎热  ,澳大利亚在应对气候变化上却表现优异  。

Various islands such as Haiti will be severely affected by climate change, perhaps due to the effects of rising sea levels. Others like Barbados, though, will apparently avoid some of the worst effect.

由于海平面的上升  ,气候变化也许会对众多岛屿国家产生影响  。但对于某些国家  ,例如巴巴多斯  ,影响则不会很大  。